예상 읽기 시간: 9 분
스탬핑 공정의 마찰
NS 스탬핑 공정 is very important, the sheet is always in contact with the die. This contact is not static, but dynamic. Because the metal sheet flows over the die surface, there is relative motion between the sheet and the die. Even though sheet and mold surfaces appear smooth without visual aid, under the microscope, their surfaces show complex shapes. Stamping Process
Sheet and tool surfaces have roughness distributions that consist of a series of peaks and valleys of varying heights, depths, and spacings, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. The roughness distribution of sheet metal will vary depending on the type, grade, and coating of the material, while the roughness distribution of tools will vary depending on the type of material and how they are processed. Stamping Process
Due to these irregularities of the sheet and tool surfaces, there is resistance to relative motion. In simple terms, this resistance to relative motion is called “friction”, which is why lubricants are applied to metal plates to reduce their resistance and therefore friction. The ratio between the frictional force and the contact force of two moving objects is represented by the coefficient of friction “μ”, the value of which depends on the tribological system itself and the forming process, such as the temperature of the sheet, the stamping speed, the contact pressure and the strain of the sheet. Stamping Process
스탬핑 공정의 윤활
We know where the friction is coming from and why we need to lubricate the sheet before stamping. We will now focus on how the amount of lubrication affects the quality of the panels during the forming process. You can get a better understanding of the lubrication effect through the pictures below. Stamping Process
그림 3, 4 및 5에 표시된 시트는 동일한 정확한 시뮬레이션 설정을 사용하여 시뮬레이션되었으며 윤활제의 양이 변경되었기 때문에 부품 품질이 다릅니다. 도 3에 도시된 시트는 인장 전에 시트에 적용된 높은 윤활성으로 인해 모서리에 심각한 주름이 있다.
The higher the amount of lubrication, the lower the resistance to movement, i.e. the material then moves freely over the tool surface in an uncontrolled manner, creating wrinkles. Conversely, when the amount of lubrication applied to the sheet is very low, the resistance to motion is very high. This high resistance forces the sheet metal to stretch beyond the desired amount, producing substantial thinning and, in some cases, extensive cracking, as shown in Figure 4. Stamping Process
Therefore, it becomes critical to use the proper amount of lubrication when pulling panels, as is finding the optimum amount of lubrication required. Figure 5 shows a sheet without wrinkles and cracks when the lubricant is properly applied. Stamping Process
다른 제조 공정과 마찬가지로 시트에 윤활제를 바르면 소음과 같은 불일치가 발생합니다. 즉, 사용자가 시트에 1g/m2의 윤활제를 사용하여 결함 없는 패널을 생성하는 경우 로봇이 매번 패널에 정확한 양의 윤활제를 분사할 확률은 얼마입니까? 예를 들어, 장비의 정확도가 85%인 경우 윤활유 편차는 0.85 – 1.15g/㎡이고 패널이 마찰에 매우 민감한 경우 몇 가지 문제가 있을 수 있습니다. 따라서 안전한 윤활량 범위를 찾고 장비가 주어진 범위 내에서 윤활유를 분사하는지 확인하는 것이 중요합니다.
When considering an AHSS stamping tribology system, there are three main points to consider, namely: 1. The effect of friction and tribology on spring back; 2. AHSS stamping produces higher temperatures, which again affects friction behavior; 3. The use of different tool materials in AHSS stamping has new effects on the friction behavior informing and simulation. These three phenomena should be considered in stamping simulations, which can only be achieved by using advanced stamping friction models. Stamping Process
물론 AHSS는 섬세한 부품을 스탬핑할 때 더 많은 스프링 백을 가지고 있습니다. 스프링백은 판금에 설정된 마찰 거동에 크게 영향을 받을 수 있습니다. 형성 simulation. This is why you should improve the friction behavior in punch simulations. This, in turn, yields better rebound predictions. Friction determines the amount of restraint in the part, and based on this, spring-back behavior is affected. Stamping Process
Also, it is important to consider that during AHSS stamping, higher contact pressures between the tool and the sheet are often observed, which is why friction becomes so important, and friction causes an increase in temperature in the material, which For mild steel, this order of magnitude does not occur. Therefore, a proper description of temperature variation and its effect on frictional behavior is critical for simulating the stamping of AHSS. Stamping Process
Additionally, AHSS stamping materials require the use of tool steels that are not typically used on medium strength steels. Now we have to consider the tribological effects of harder tools made of a certain carbon and chromium content, rather than tools made of cast iron. This mold material also has an effect on tribological properties. This is why the user must take this into account as well as lubricant selection during the simulation setup. A good friction model should take into account all these interrelationships when generating the friction model. Stamping Process
If you have an advanced friction model in your forming simulation, then you need to introduce a realistic tribology system in your sheet metal forming simulation. You’ll then get more accurate crack, wrinkle, thinning, and spring back predictions, all tied to the friction model you’re using. Stamping Process
In the process of deep drawing, due to the relative movement between the workpiece and the surface of the mold, adhesion will occur under the action of a certain pressure. When stainless steel is deep-drawn, this phenomenon is more serious, resulting in scratches on the surface of the product and the appearance of the mold surface. “Bonding nodules”, in order to protect the surface quality of products, control friction, wear, and remove scratches, the most effective means is lubrication. The first point of selecting lubricant is that the lubricating film does not break and lubricates throughout the sheet metal deep drawing process. Stamping Process
“Anti-viscosity and friction reduction” is the basic starting point for selecting lubricants. Under the premise that other conditions meet the deep drawing process, the quality of lubrication will directly affect the drawing force, die life and product quality, etc., and even become the key to the success or failure of the deep drawing process. According to the information, among various processes, the deep drawing process consumes the most amount of lubricant. During the deep drawing process, due to the relatively large deformation of the material, the lubricant is required to have excellent performance. Stamping Process
다양한 윤활제를 살펴보겠습니다.
다음은 몇 가지 일반적인 스탬핑 윤활제의 특성입니다.
|1. 업계에서 널리 인정 및 사용
2. 염소 및 유황은 극압에서 매우 효과적인 윤활 첨가제
3. 일반적으로 공작물을 촉촉하게 유지하고 사용 중에 공작물 접착이 심각하지 않습니다.
|1. 구식 기술, 연구 개발의 진전이 거의 없음
2. 혼합이 어렵고 에멀젼이 불안정함
3. 유해 및 인화성 성분 함유
4. 세척 및 직접용접이 어렵다.
5. 처리 수수료 인상
|1. 공작물에서 증발할 수 있습니다.
2. 쉬운 청소
|1. 가연성 및 유독성
2. 심각한 피부병을 일으킴
3. 도구에 대한 보호 감소
4. 완전히 사라지지 않음
5. 공기 중 VOC 양의 한계 초과
6. 워크샵에서 VOC 함량 대폭 증가
|붕산 비누 건조 필름
|1. 윤활유와 혼합하거나 스탬핑시 단독으로 사용
2. 매우 효과적인 윤활 제품
|1. 틀 위에 건설
2. 펀치에서 붕사 입자 생성
3. 금형 청소 시 추가 비용 발생
4. 청소 시 거품 발생
5. 습한 환경이나 윤활유를 만나면 부드럽고 끈적거리게 됩니다.
6. 폐수 중 중금속으로 오인
|1. 범용 공구 보호 제품
2. 저렴한 가격
3. 희석 후에도 여전히 유효함
|1. 1830년대의 기술
2. EP 첨가제가 포함되어 있지 않습니다.
3. 안료가 도구에 부착되어 있으며 스탬핑 부분이 접착되기 쉽습니다.
4. 공작물의 표면 점도가 큽니다.
5. 연금속에 대한 부식
6. 청소 중 거품 발생
During the lubrication process, different vaporization will occur as the temperature rises, taking away a lot of heat, thereby reducing the temperature of the mold; as the vaporization continues to generate, the lubricant will continue to accumulate to the high-temperature point, forming a tougher The lubricating film protects the mold more effectively, thereby extending the service life of the mold. It will also improve the quality of the workpiece surface without scratches, as shown in the figure below. Stamping Process